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XXth century

Between 1903 and 1906 the former Museum of Industry and Commerce was renovated to house the Portuguese Ethnological Museum, which was founded in 1903. In 1907 the Jerónimos Monastery was finally recognised as a National Monument.

The year 1908 marked the beginning of a new works campaign in the Monastery, with the conclusion of the central body of the annexe based on already existing but now simplified design by Parente da Silva from 1895. The pews were restored by the sculptor Costa Mota in 1924.

In 1938 the rows of chairs were removed and the organs in the Upper Choir dismantled. At the same time a number of stained glass windows were placed on the south façade (design by Abel Manta, execution by Ricardo Leone).

To mark the occasion of the Father Centennials in 1939 restoration work was carried out on the Monastery and Tower of Belém. The baldachin over the tomb of Alexandre Herculano was removed and the Cloister patio paved.

The "Exhibition of the Portuguese World" took place in 1940, requiring the redevelopment of the space in front of the Monastery. The Casa Pia moved out of the Cloister area and the tombs of Camões and Vasco da Gama were transferred from the Transept to the Lower Choir. The following year the narthex was rebuilt.

The series of stained glass windows in the Transept (design by Rebocho, execution by Alves Mendes) is from 1950.In 1951 the remains of the Portuguese President Óscar Carmona were laid to rest in the Chapter House. In 1966 he was transferred to the National Pantheon together with the tombs of the other former presidents and literary figures that were in the same space.

The Maritime Museum, established in 1909, and the Calouste Gulbenkian Planetarium were installed in the annexe to the Monastery in 1962.In 1983 the Monastery was classified by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site; the same year the Monastery also hosted the "17th Exhibition of Art, Science and Culture".

The signing of the treaty for Portuguese membership of the EEC took place in the Cloister in 1985. A pond from Queluz Palace was placed at the centre of the Cloister.Two major exhibitions marked the 1990s in the Monastery: the "4 Centuries of Painting" show in 1992 and 1998's "Leonardo da Vinci - A Man on the Scale of the World, a World on the Scale of Man" exhibition, which featured the Codex Leicester in Portugal, on loan from Bill Gates.

The turn of the millennium brought important restoration work: in the High Altar in 1999 and in the Cloister from 1998 to 2002.